Authors: Arie Kouwen, Mark Scanlon, Ph.D. (University College Dublin), Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Nhien An Le Khac (University College Dublin)



Historically, radio-equipment has solely been used as a two-way analog communication device. Today, the use of radio communication equipment is increasing by numerous organizations and businesses. The functionality of these traditionally short-range devices has expanded to include private call, address book, call logs, text messages, lone worker, telemetry, data communication, and GPS. Many of these devices also integrate with smartphones, which delivers Push-To-Talk services that make it possible to set up connections between users using a two-way radio and a smartphone. In fact, these devices can be used to connect users only using smartphones. To date, there is little research on the digital traces in modern radio communication equipment. In fact, increasing the knowledge base about these radio communication devices and services can be valuable to law enforcement in a police investigation. In this paper, we investigate what kind of radio communication equipment and services law enforcement digital investigators can encounter at a crime scene or in an investigation. Subsequent to the seizure of this radio communication equipment we explore the traces, which may have a forensic interest and how these traces can be acquired. Finally, we test our approach to sample radio communication equipment and services.