Josiah Dykstra, Ph.D. (National Security Agency)
Alan Sherman


We expose and explore technical and trust issues that arise in acquiring forensic evidence from infrastructure-as-a-service cloud computing and analyze some strategies for addressing these challenges. First, we create a model to show the layers of trust required in the cloud. Second, we present the overarching context for a cloud forensic exam and analyze choices available to an examiner. Third, we provide for the first time an evaluation of popular forensic acquisition tools including Guidance EnCase and AccesData Forensic Toolkit, and show that they can successfully return volatile and non-volatile data from the cloud. We explain, however, that with those techniques judge and jury must accept a great deal of trust in the authenticity and integrity of the data from many layers of the cloud model. In addition, we explore four other solutions for acquisitiondTrusted Platform Modules, the management plane, forensics-as-a-service, and legal solutions, which assume less trust but require more cooperation from the cloud service provider. Our work lays a foundation for future development of new acquisition methods for the cloud that will be trustworthy and forensically sound. Our work also helps forensic examiners, law enforcement, and the court evaluate confidence in evidence from the cloud.