Christian Winter
Martin Steinebach
York Yannikos


Similarity preserving hashing can aid forensic investigations by providing means to recognize known content and modified versions of known content. However, this raises the need for efficient indexing strategies which support the similarity search. We present and evaluate two indexing strategies for robust image hashes created by the ForBild tool. These strategies are based on generic indexing approaches for Hamming spaces, i.e. spaces of bit vectors equipped with the Hamming distance. Our first strategy uses a vantage point tree, and the second strategy uses locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). Although the calculation of Hamming distances is inexpensive and hence challenging for indexing strategies, we improve the speed for identifying similar items by a factor of about 30 with the treebased index, and a factor of more than 100 with the LSH index. While the tree-based index retrieves all approximate matches, the speed of LSH is paid with a small rate of false negatives